Did you know that Z score is a statistical measurement that can help you determine how far a data point is from the mean? It is a standardized score that allows us to compare data points from different samples or populations. In this article, we will discuss the formula for calculating Z score, its uses, and how to interpret the results.

**Baca Cepat**show

## What is Z Score?

Z score, also known as standard score, represents the number of standard deviations a particular data point is from the mean. It is calculated by subtracting the sample mean from the data point and then dividing the result by the sample standard deviation, as shown in the following formula:

Z = (x – μ) / σ

Where:

- Z – Z score
- x – Observed value
- μ – Sample mean
- σ – Sample standard deviation

Z score can be positive, negative, or zero, depending on whether the data point is above, below, or equal to the mean, respectively. For example, if the mean value of a sample is 50 and the standard deviation is 10, a data point with a value of 60 would have a Z score of 1, which means it is one standard deviation above the mean.

## How to Calculate Z Score

Calculating Z score involves three main steps:

- Find the mean of the sample
- Find the standard deviation of the sample
- Calculate the Z score for each data point

Let’s look at an example.

## Example

Suppose we have a sample of 10 salaries:

50,000 55,000 57,000 60,000 62,000 65,000 70,000 75,000 85,000 90,000

First, we need to find the mean of the sample:

Mean = (50,000 + 55,000 + 57,000 + 60,000 + 62,000 + 65,000 + 70,000 + 75,000 + 85,000 + 90,000) / 10 = 69,400

Next, we need to find the standard deviation of the sample:

Standard deviation = sqrt(((50,000-69,400)^2 + (55,000-69,400)^2 + (57,000-69,400)^2 + (60,000-69,400)^2 + (62,000-69,400)^2 + (65,000-69,400)^2 + (70,000-69,400)^2 + (75,000-69,400)^2 + (85,000-69,400)^2 + (90,000-69,400)^2) / 9) = 14,819.1

Finally, we can calculate the Z score for each data point:

- Z score for 50,000 = (50,000 – 69,400) / 14,819.1 = -1.31
- Z score for 55,000 = (55,000 – 69,400) / 14,819.1 = -0.97
- Z score for 57,000 = (57,000 – 69,400) / 14,819.1 = -0.81
- Z score for 60,000 = (60,000 – 69,400) / 14,819.1 = -0.58
- Z score for 62,000 = (62,000 – 69,400) / 14,819.1 = -0.44
- Z score for 65,000 = (65,000 – 69,400) / 14,819.1 = -0.20
- Z score for 70,000 = (70,000 – 69,400) / 14,819.1 = 0.04
- Z score for 75,000 = (75,000 – 69,400) / 14,819.1 = 0.28
- Z score for 85,000 = (85,000 – 69,400) / 14,819.1 = 1.05
- Z score for 90,000 = (90,000 – 69,400) / 14,819.1 = 1.61

These Z scores tell us how far each data point is from the sample mean in terms of standard deviations. For example, a salary of $50,000 is 1.31 standard deviations below the mean, while a salary of $90,000 is 1.61 standard deviations above the mean.

## What are the Uses of Z Score?

Z score has many practical uses in statistics and data analysis. Here are some of the most common applications:

- Outlier detection: Z score can be used to identify data points that are significantly different from the mean, indicating that they could be outliers.
- Normalization: Z score can also be used to normalize data by transforming it to have a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one.
- Hypothesis testing: Z score is commonly used in hypothesis testing to determine the statistical significance of the results.
- Quality control: Z score can be used in quality control to monitor the performance of a process and detect any deviations from the expected values.
- Healthcare: Z score is used in healthcare to assess the nutritional status of children based on their weight and height measurements.

## Interpreting Z Score

Z score can be interpreted in a few different ways:

- If Z score is between -1 and 1, the data point is considered to be within one standard deviation of the mean, which means it is not unusual or exceptional.
- If Z score is less than -3 or greater than 3, the data point is considered to be an outlier and is significantly different from the mean.
- If Z score is negative, the data point is below the mean, while a positive Z score indicates that the data point is above the mean.
- The magnitude of Z score indicates how far the data point is from the mean in terms of standard deviations.

## FAQ

### What is the difference between Z score and T score?

Z score and T score are both standardized scores that indicate how far a data point is from the mean. However, there are a few key differences between them. Z score is based on the standard deviation of the sample, while T score is based on the standard deviation of the population. T score is also often used in medical research and is calculated using a different formula than Z score.

### How do you interpret a negative Z score?

A negative Z score indicates that the data point is below the mean. The magnitude of the Z score indicates how far the data point is from the mean in terms of standard deviations. For example, a Z score of -2 would indicate that the data point is two standard deviations below the mean.

## Video Tutorial

If you prefer a visual explanation of Z score, here is a video tutorial that explains how to calculate and interpret Z score:

## Conclusion

Z score is a valuable statistical measurement that allows us to compare data points from different samples and populations. It can help us identify outliers, normalize data, perform hypothesis testing, monitor quality control, and assess nutritional status in healthcare. By understanding how to calculate and interpret Z score, you can gain a better understanding of your data and make more informed decisions based on statistical analysis.